ISSN Print 2713-2757    ISSN Online 2713-2765
Extreme Medicine

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The study was focused on the features of spectral characteristics of the EEG alpha and theta ranges in the military academy cadets undergoing specific training to improve cold resistance (cold exposure training). The study was aimed to assess the impact of the military academy cadets’ incremental exposure to the graduated cold stress (cold exposure training) on spectral characteristics of the EEG alpha and theta rhythms. Students of the civil higher educational institution and military academy cadets were assessed (58 individuals in total). Cadets underwent a specific program focused on improving cold resistance (cold exposure training). Background EEG in the alpha and theta frequency ranges was recorded. Statistical data processing involved nonparametric comparison using the Mann–Whitney U test. The results were obtained suggesting that there were significant differences in spectral characteristics of alpha and theta rhythms between the group of foreign cadets and the controls. The cold exposure training program was effective in the group of Russian cadets, which had an effect on the cerebral homeostasis stability with some degree of instability of neurodynamic processes in the CNS. In foreign cadets, regular cold exposure training resulted in the pronounced disintegration of cortical-subcortical and intracortical interactions, as well as in the formation of binary alpha-theta structure of background EEG.
Hip dysplasia (HD) represents the congenital underdevelopment of the hip joint (HJ) being the most common orthopedic problem of newborns having the prevalence of 5–20%. Late HD detection is the main cause of coxarthrosis in young adulthood. The study was aimed to assess the results of ultrasound screening for HD in infants. The study involved 860 full-term infants aged 1–3 months (446 boys (51.9%) and 414 girls (48.1%)). All newborns underwent ultrasound imaging of the hip joint at the age of 1 month and the follow-up examination at the age of 3 months (Graf method). The χ2 test and p < 0.05 were used to compare the data. In their first year of life, 685 newborns (79.7%) had joints of normal or transitory shape, 161 (18.7%) showed physiological immaturity and 14 (1.6%) showed the HJ abnormality; the HJ immaturity and abnormality were more prevalent in girls (113 cases (26.3%)) than in boys (62 cases (13.9%)). The relationship between the breech presentation and the likelihood of developing HD was revealed (p < 0.001). Spontaneous improvement by the age of 3 months took place in the majority of infants having the ultrasound signs of HD, the rate of normal HJ increased from 79.8 to 94.5%. Ultrasound screening is an effective method allowing one to detect HD starting from the first days of the child’s life. The risk factors of HD are still female sex and breech presentation, regardless of the number of births. Spontaneous improvement following prescription of relaxing massage occurs in the majority of children.

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The spread of COVID-19 in Russia has led to restrictive measures. The stress associated therewith had a noticeable psychoemotional effect on the population, which could not but affect the numbers and patterns of acute chemical poisonings (ACP). This study aimed to investigate the patterns of ACP in Moscow in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. We analyzed data describing cases admitted with ACP to N.V. Sklifosovsky Research Institute for Emergency Medicine in 2019–2021, factoring in the dynamics COVID-19 prevalence as diagnosed with RT-PCR tests. The results of the analysis were processed using nonparametric methods and GraphPad Prism 9 software. Within the considered period, 2020 was the peak year. The number of acute poisonings (AP) with ethanol and its surrogates in 2020 was 109.7% greater than in 2019 (both sexes; the figure for women alone was 286.2%). Male patients suffered AP with drugs and corrosive substances more often than female (p < 0.0001). The number of drug abuse cases in 2019–2021 varied slightly, increasing by 2.4 and 6.7% annually. Synthetic narcotic substances were most common: methadone, cathinones, psychostimulants, and mixtures of substances. We discovered parallel trends in dynamics of ethanol intoxication and COVID-19 cases, and no such between drug poisonings and the said morbidity. Thus, the identified specifics of ACP patterns in the capital of Russia associated with the COVID-19 pandemic are a spike in alcohol abuse (especially among women), and lack of noticeable effect of the disease on use of drugs.
Radiation exposure of recipients before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation can cause gastrointestinal (GI) stasis. It is associated with complications of myeloablative radiation therapy: delayed vomiting, excess bacterial growth, endotoxicosis, systemic inflammation, and sepsis. The study was aimed to assess the possibility of GI stasis prevention by intragastric administration of cystamine dihydrochloride when using radiation-induced myeloablation. The severity of GI stasis, levels of enterocyte markers in the small intestinal tissues and the indicator of intestinal endotoxicosis, urinary indican excretion, were assessed in rats 72 h after the single total-body X-ray exposure to the dose of 9.64 Gy (1.1 LD99/30); the animals’ whole body oxygen consumption was recorded daily. Irradiation caused GI stasis with predominant gastric stasis, the 1.5–4.8-fold decrease in the cholinesterase and alkaline phosphatase activity in the small intestinal tissues, doubled the urinary indican excretion, the whole body oxygen consumption reduction by 17–32%. Cystamine administration generally prevented gastric stasis, but had no significant effect on the characteristics of radiation-induced enterocytopenia and did not prevent accumulation of chyme in the caecum, hyperindicanuria, radiation-induced spleen hypotrophy, and decrease in gas exchange rate. Cystamine is promising for testing in large animals as a selective agent for emergency prevention of gastric stasis during myeloablative radiation therapy.