ISSN Print 2713-2757    ISSN Online 2713-2765
Extreme Medicine

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Studying the features of radiological situation in the workplace and assessing the individual effective doses in employees of research organizations working with open radiation sources (RS) are an urgent scientific task due to additional risks resulting from variability in the conditions and regimes of the technological operations. The study was aimed to assess the working conditions and intake of radionuclides by the employees of the V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute working with open RS. The data on exposure to work-related radiation factors were obtained by dosimetry, radiometry, and spectrometry. It was found that radiological situation in the employees' workplaces was characterized by the broad range of the gamma ambient dose equivalent rate values (0.10–122 µSv/h), alpha and beta working surface contamination, radioactive pollution of air in the working areas. In some individuals, spectrometry revealed the following: 125I in the thyroid gland (up to 9,850 Bq), 90Sr in the skeleton (up to 16,500 Bq), 137Сs in the whole body (up to 1,100 Bq), etc. The findings can provide the basis for developing the measures to improve the quality of individual internal dose control and the efficiency of medical care provision to the research organization employees dealing with open RS.
Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, remains a global burden on our country and entire world. According to the World Health Organization, 10 million incident cases of tuberculosis were registered in 2019. A steady increase in the drug-resistant tuberculosis aggravates the situation and appears to be the major obstacle to the fight against the disease. A thorough understanding of the pathogen physiology and virulence properties is extremely important for the development of new diagnosis methods and treatment strategies. Multiomics approaches to studying the infectious agents are indispensable in understanding the nature of the disease. Despite the availability of sufficient genomic and transcriptomic data, pathogenic potential, survival rate, persistence, immunomodulation, mechanisms underlying drug resistance and host–pathogen interaction remain poorly understood. The use of proteomic approaches has been more informative, and provides more information about the true state of the cell in various conditions. Proteomic and bioinformatic approaches helped considerably in identification and characterization of target proteins that could be used for the development of new therapeutic options. Nevertheless, OMICs data integration with simultaneous use of the system approach to studying various clinically significant mycobacterial strains makes it possible to increase knowledge about the disease mechanisms and infection control methods. The review outlines various OMICs technologies and their role in the development of the M. tuberculosis diagnostic panels.
Psychophysiological assessment of employees of 10 Russian nuclear power plants revealed a low degree of psychophysiological adaptation (PPA) in 30% of subjects. Studying the fuctional activity (FA) of the brain by EEG revealed the decline in FA in individuals with the low degree of PPA. The impaired cerebral energy exchange could be one of the factors contributing to the decline in the brain functional state. The study was aimed to assess the features of the cerebral energy exchange in the employees of the hazardous nuclear facilities and productions with the low degree of PPA. A total of 159 EEG recordings acquired from individuals with the low degree of PPA (50.8 ± 4.6), and 152  EEG recordings acquired from individuals with the high degree of PPA (48.8 ± 1.5) were studied. Energy exchange was assessed in individuals with the low FA of both brain as a whole and the following conditionally distinguished structural and functional units (SFUs) of the CNS: mainly cerebral cortex (SFU-1), cortical-subcortical interactions (SFU-2), central control of the cardiovascular system (SFU-3). EEG was recorded by standard method using the electroencephalography unit. The magnitude of the hemispheric differences (HD) in the power of biopotentials (BP) between the homologous EEG leads was used to assess the cerebral energy exchange. There is evidence of the cerebral energy exchange increase in the anterior cortical areas of individuals with the low degree of PPA. The increased cerebral energy exchange has been also revealed in SFU-1 and SFU-2 responsible for the mental and psychophysiological functions of the CNS. However, cerebral energy exchange remains unchanged in the SFU-3 reflecting the central control of the CVS.

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