Reproductive organ transplantation was considered as a potential method for treatment of the ovarian factor, tubal factor, and uterine factor infertility before the advent of advanced assisted reproductive technologies. Uterus transplantation can be considered as the method for treatment of absolute uterine factor infertility similar to transplantation of non-vital organs. However, the clinical use of uterus transplantation in humans causes a lot of problems. The study was aimed to develop a program for assessment of various surgical tissue revascularization techniques for  restoration of reproductive function in experimental animals with uterine factor infertility. Chinchilla rabbits (n = 20) were selected for experiments because of the fact that all mammals have similar structure of the organs. The innovative technique involving the use of ovarian arteries instead of uterine arteries (as in the standard protocol) was used in laboratory animals to develop the surgical protocol for transplantation of reproductive tissues. The animal study results show that hemodynamic characteristics of blood supply to the transplanted uterus remain unchanged. This makes it possible to use the surgical method in the experiments on  the uterus transplant from a deceased donor. The proposed uterus transplantation protocol ensures high transplant survival rate and normal blood supply to the transplant, along with the reduced risk of injury to the donor and reduced complexity of the surgical procedure.
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Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are the most promising and most intensively replenished type of bioactive pharmaceuticals. Currently, there are over 100 different mAbs approved by the FDA and other regulating agencies for treatment of oncological, infectious, systemic, autoimmune and other diseases. Design of antibodies neutralizing pathogens of socially significant infections, such as HIV, hepatitis viruses, SARS-CoV-2, is a separate direction. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has shown how urgent it is to have a technological platform enabling production of fully human antibodies. The development of recombinant DNA technology and antibody phage display enabled compilation of libraries of antigen-binding fragments and screening with target antigens. This review discusses the advantages and disadvantages of phage display, including use of single-domain antibody technology based on the heavy chain variable domain. We describe the state-of-the-art (and practical results of its application) technology enabling production of human antibodies by sorting and sequencing the genome of individual memory B cells, using monoclonal virus-neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 as an example. The prospects of further development of the recombinant human antibody production technology are discussed; in particular, we consider creation of sequences of variable fragments of antibodies with the help of artificial intelligence.
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The anti-doping efforts on the part of medics should be constantly improved, which means the exploration and analysis of ways to increase the effectiveness of such efforts should be constant. SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) is one of such ways. It investigates internal problems and resources of an organization and the influence of external factors. This study aimed to improve the anti-doping efforts based on the analysis of their strengths and weaknesses, taking into account external threats and directions of development. We have conducted an express SWOT analysis of anti-doping work in medical organizations of the Federal Medical Biological Agency of Russia and compiled a simple matrix. The factors under consideration are internal, which can be controlled, and external, which are often uncontrollable but should be accounted for. We identified the most significant factors influencing organization of this line of work, compiled the SWOT matrix that allows assessing the possible resources for intensifying the anti-doping work, determined its strengths and weaknesses, threats and opportunities imposed by the environment in this activity takes place in. The express SWOT analysis enabled evaluation of the factors that have the greatest impact on the organization of anti-doping work. Informational and educational programs, including workshops for medics and monitoring of their level of knowledge, can be the key line of activity in the context of such efforts.
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The process of production of inactivated influenza vaccines involves a stage of inactivation of both the influenza virus and the possible viral contaminants that can come from the raw materials (chicken embryos). One of such contaminants is the avian leukemia virus. The minimum viral contaminant load reduction that the inactivating agents should guarantee is by 4 lg/ml; this or higher level of the deactivating ability ensures the finished vaccine is free from viral contaminants. The purpose of this work was to cultivate the leukemia virus to the titer of 5 lg/ml (minimum) and to measure the reduction of the avian leukemia virus titer in influenza vaccine intermediates upon exposure to the inactivating agents. The RAV-1 and RAV-2 leukemia virus strains and influenza vaccine intermediates such as virus-containing allantoic fluid and virus concentrates were used in the study. Avian leukemia virus titers were determined by enzyme immunoassay. We created conditions for cultivation of the RAV-1 and RAV-2 avian leukemia virus strains in the primary culture of chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF); the inactivating agents considered were the most commonly used β-propiolactone and UV radiation. It was found that after 12 hours of exposure to β-propiolactone, the RAV-1 avian leukemia virus load decreased by 4.61 ± 0.46 lg, and that of RAV-2 strain - by 4.33 ± 0.33 lg, which indicates that β-propiolactone is an effective inactivating agent. Five minutes of exposure to UV radiation reduces the RAV-1 strain viral load by 4.22 ± 0.31 lg and RAV-2 strain viral load by 4.44 ± 0.48 lg.
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Active (red) bone marrow (AM) exposure due to ingested bone-seeking radionuclides can lead to grave medical consequences. For example, a radioactive contamination of the Techa River in the 1950s caused exposure to AM for riverside residents and led to chronic radioactive exposure syndrome in some of them, with higher risk of leukemia. The main sources of the marrow exposure were the bone-seeking beta emitters 89,90Sr. Improving the dosimetry of AM internal exposure is an important step in clarifying the risks of chronic radiation exposure for riverside residents. To evaluate the energy absorbed by AM from incorporated 90Sr it is customary to use computational phantoms where radiation transport can be emulated. A phantom is a representative digital representation of skeletal bone geometry and AM The goal of this work was to develop a computational phantom of a newborn skeleton for dosimetry of AM from incorporated 90Sr. The researchers have used the Stochastic Parametric Skeletal Dosimetry method (SPSD), where hematopoietic sites were modeled as a set of phantoms of simple geometric shape describing individual skeletal bone areas. The AM content in the skeleton as well as the phantom parameters were evaluated on the basis of published measurements of real bones. As a result, a computational phantom of the main skeletal hematopoietic sites was generated for a newborn baby, including 34 phantoms of bone areas. The simulated phantom simulates the bone structure as well as the variability of skeletal parameters within the population and corresponds well to measurements of real bones.
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