Tolerance to food antigens is essential for body’s sustainable development under constant antigenic load. Specific IgG against food antigens have been extensively studied in the literature over the recent years. The presence of those associated with various disorders and introduction of elimination diets for certain food products result in good treatment outcomes related not only to the gastrointestinal tract. Investigation of the impact of the long-term IgG-mediated hypersensitivity to food antigens associated with the increased blood-brain barrier permeability is also relevant when studying pathogenesis of the central nervous system disorders. However, identification of specific IgG in the generally healthy people having no history of allergy or inflammation currently provides no clear understanding of their nature and functional significance. Specific IgG are of great interest in terms of predicting the development of functional disorders, remission and treatment of disorders, changes in susceptibility to food antigens at certain age. The results of specific IgG studies are equivocal, which confirms the need to study their structure, epitopes capable of activating autoimmune processes considering the combined effects of medication, environmental conditions and social living conditions. The paper provides the analysis of the currently available research focused on studying specific IgG against food antigens. The data on identification of specific IgG in individuals with various disorders are provided, as well as the gender-related and age-related differences in antibody detection, the relationship between the antibody levels and the rate of food product consumption.
Adaptation to the extreme living conditions of the North causes dyslipidemia, a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), in people working there. This study aimed to assess the level of lipids and C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation in CVD cases, in the blood of men staying in the Arctic and Subarctic zones of Russia. Accordingly, the sample was divided into two group, Arctic and Subarctic, the former included 51 participants, aged 35.7 ± 0.6 years, the latter — 54 individuals, aged 34.2 ± 0.9 years (p = 0.167); the duration of their work/stay in the Arctic and Subarctic zones was 7.1 ± 0.2 and 6.4 ± 0.6 years (p = 0.447), respectively. We sampled blood of the participants and measured triglycerides, total cholesterol, low (LDL) and high (HDL) density lipoproteins, atherogenic index (AI), CRP content. Arctic group had higher levels of triglycerides (1.71 ± 0.03 and 1.38 ± 0.14 mmol/l, p = 0.021), total cholesterol (6.15 ± 0.08 and 5.47 ± 0.14 mmol/l, p =0.001), HDL (1.5 ± 0.06 and 1.1 ± 0.04 mmol/l, p = 0.001); the values of LDL did not differ significantly between the groups (4.07 ± 0.08 and 4.1 ± 0.15 mmol/l, p = 0.88), and AI and CRP values (3.41 ± 0.18 and 4.18 ± 0.2, p = 0.007; 3.41 ± 0.18 and 4.91 ± 0.22 mg/l, p = 0.006, respectively) were greater in the Subarctic group. By triglycerides, dyslipidemia was diagnosed in 49.0% and 18.4% of Arctic and Subarctic participants, respectively, by total cholesterol — in 98.0% and 57.8%, by LDL — in 94.1% and 88.0%. As for HDL, their level was lower than normal in 2.0% of the Arctic group subjects and 36.7% of the Subarctic group subjects, which means a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases in the Subarctic region. The level of CRP indicated that 90% of the Arctic group participants were at risk of CVD (moderate risk for 23.5%, high risk for 66.7%), and in the Subarctic group this number was 100% (moderate risk for 7.7%, high risk for 88.5%). The likely reasons behind this are the specifics of nutrition and living conditions. Program of prevention of CVD in the Arctic zone should include lipid profile and CRP tests as part of every periodic medical examination, regardless of age. It is necessary to implement dyslipidemia alimentary correction measures.
The prospects of deep space exploration necessitate modification of the principles and methods underlying the system designed to prevent negative impact of weightlessness on the human body. This work aimed to determine how fast running, as part of locomotor training during a space flight (SF), helps maintain physical ability of a person. The study involved 10 cosmonauts; their physical  performance was assessed at all stages of the SF with the help of the Individual Strategies Test (IST). The parameters registered when the participants were doing the IST included heart rate (HR), gas exchange, capillary blood lactate concentration. The cosmonauts were divided into two groups based on the differences in the mean distance covered while fast running on a treadmill (single session). Group A (n = 4) run 949 m/day on average, group B (n = 6) — 2669 m/day. After SF, HR in group A increased at speeds from 5 to 8 km/h (p < 0.05), pulmonary ventilation indicators grew at speeds from 8 to 15 km/h (p < 0.05), and the capillary blood lactate concentration measured during the post-test recovery period increased by 37% (p = 0.03). Moreover, after SF, the pulse sum  recorded under load and during recovery was 14% (p = 0.02) and 15% (p = 0.03) in group A, respectively, while in group B we registered no differences. Thus, our hypothesis that fast running triggers sensory reactions simulatingEarth conditions for the body, which consequently activates physiological mechanisms counteracting the negative effects of weightlessness, has been confirmed in a space experiment.
Head and neck reconstruction surgery is a challenging area of surgery that requires the surgeon to be familiar with various reconstructive options. Achieving both functionality and aesthetic harmony of facial proportions constitutes one of the most important aspects of the head and neck defect elimination. For that various methods are used involving application of local, regional and free flaps on vascular pedicles. The reconstructive method is selected based on the defect size, location, composition, as well as on the age, comorbidity, surgeon’s and patient’s preferences. Submental flap is a regional flap that has proven to be a reliable fasciocutaneous flap, the tissues of which are identical to that of the lower face in width, texture, and color. Long vascular pedicle ensures wide flap rotation arc, thereby allowing one to use the flap for elimination of defects of the upper and lower lips, mental region, tongue, floor of the mouth, and preauricular area. Damage to the donor site is minimal, it is cosmetically invisible due to the scar hidden in the mental region. The paper presents the results of surgical treatment of the 38-year-old female patient with the soft tissue defect of the lower third of the face and the lip resulting from trauma. The wound did not heal for more than six months, no improvement was observed. It was decided to eliminate the defect using a rotation submental flap. The patient was followed up for a year after surgery. We managed to achieve complete aesthetic and functional rehabilitation of the patient.
Cytomegalovirus infection (CMVI) continues to be a serious public health problem, being second to hypoxia and asphyxia in the list of reasons of morbidity and mortality of newborns. This study aimed to analyze therapeutic approaches to management of children with congenital cytomegalovirus with the regimens including an antiviral drug (direct action) and a specific anti-cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin (anti-CMV IG), depending on the clinical form of the disease. The total number of participants was 62, with the first group of children receiving the antiviral drug (n = 21), and the second group — an anti-CMV IG (n = 41). We analyzed the clinical, laboratory and instrumental research methods, and studied the catamnesis of children under 3 years of age. For statistical analysis, we used SPSS Statistics and StatTech v.3.1.6. In the first group, where the regimen included the direct action antiviral drug, the outcome was successful for 28.6% of the participants, and in the second group, which was treated with the anti-CMV immunoglobulin, this figure was 58.5%. Regardless of the regimen, by the age of 3, 50% of the children were practically healthy. Most of the participants tolerated the therapy satisfactorily. However, for 66% of the involved children, we had to shorten the direct action antiviral drug therapy to 14 days because of the problems with venous access, in 4.8% we registered thrombocytopenia, and in 9.5% — increased transaminase activity. Comparing the disease outcomes depending on the therapy initiation day, we established significant differences only for the specific antiviral therapy cases (p = 0.044).