Detection of ultra-low concentrations of bromodihydrochlorophenylbenzodiazepine (phenazepam) and its metabolites in biological objects

Volkova AA1,2, Kalekin RA1,2, Moskaleva NE1,3, Astashkina OG1,4, Orlova AM1, Markin PA1,3
About authors

1 Russian Center of Forensic Medical Expertise, Moscow, Russia

2 Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia

3 Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia

4 Bureau of Forensic Medical Examination, Moscow, Russia

Correspondence should be addressed: Roman A. Kalekin
Polikarpova, 12/13, Moscow, 125284, Russia; ur.ems-cr@ajimih

About paper

Author contribution: Volkova AA, Kalekin RA, Orlova AM, Astashkina OG — data acquisition, manuscript writing; Volkova AA, Kalekin RA, Moskaleva NE, Markin PA — experimental procedure.

Compliance with ethical standards: the study was planned and conducted in accordance with the requirements of the Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association (2000) and subsequent revisions thereto; the informed consent was submitted by all study participants.

Received: 2022-02-23 Accepted: 2022-03-11 Published online: 2022-03-25
Fig. 1. Selected ion chromatogram (m/z 348) of the chloroform extract of urine containing phenazepam
Fig. 2. Mass spectrum of phenazepam
Fig. 3. Selected ion chromatogram (m/z 348) of the chloroform extract of urine containing 3-hydroxyphenazepam
Table 1. Mobile phase gradient
Table 2. Results of urine analysis by HR HPLC-TMS
Note: σ2 — variance, σ — standard deviation; V — coefficient of variation; A/ma — ratio of skewness to its error; E/me — ratio of kurtosis to its error; ā — mean deviation.
Table 3. Assessment of the parameters of validation characteristics used for identification of phenazepam and its metabolite by HR HPLC-ТМS