Role of LINC complex proteins in sperm formation
Spermatogenesis is characterized by the significant changes of three-dimensional organization of the nucleus in spermatocytes, spermatides and spermatozoa. The functional cooperation between the nuclear envelope proteins and the acroplaxome/manchette is essential for nuclear elongation, acrosome biogenesis, formation of the flagellum. Furthermore, the nuclear envelope ensures the non-random chromosome arrangement within the nucleus. The LINC (linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton) complex proteins are involved in interaction between the cytoskeleton and the nucleoskeleton, as well as in the control of mechanotransduction. The LINC complex contains proteins of the outer and inner nuclear membranes: KASH and SUN, respectively. The LINC complex proteins are involved in formation of the sperm head and flagellum, and are, therefore, essential for male fertility. This review will consider the issues of the LINC complex protein localization in cells during the successive stages of spermatogenesis, the role in regulation of sperm maturation, and mutations of the LINC complex proteins resulting in male infertility.
Keywords: male infertility, LINC complex, nuclear lamina, nuclear pores, globozoospermia