Omics technologies in the diagnostics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Bespyatykh JA1,2, Basmanov DV1
About authors

1 Federal Research and Clinical Center of Physical-Chemical Medicine of Federal Medical Biological Agency, Moscow, Russia

2 Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, Moscow, Russia

Correspondence should be addressed: Julia A. Bespyatykh
Malaya Pirogovskaya, 1a, Moscow, 119435, Russia; gro.mcpcr@seBailuJ

About paper

Funding: the study was supported by RSF grant № 20-75-10144.

Author contribution: Bespyatykh JA — study concept, manuscript writing and editing; Basmanov DV — analysis of raw data on biosensors and microarrays, manuscript writing.

Received: 2022-04-12 Accepted: 2022-04-27 Published online: 2022-05-16

Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, remains a global burden on our country and entire world. According to the World Health Organization, 10 million incident cases of tuberculosis were registered in 2019. A steady increase in the drug-resistant tuberculosis aggravates the situation and appears to be the major obstacle to the fight against the disease. A thorough understanding of the pathogen physiology and virulence properties is extremely important for the development of new diagnosis methods and treatment strategies. Multiomics approaches to studying the infectious agents are indispensable in understanding the nature of the disease. Despite the availability of sufficient genomic and transcriptomic data, pathogenic potential, survival rate, persistence, immunomodulation, mechanisms underlying drug resistance and host–pathogen interaction remain poorly understood. The use of proteomic approaches has been more informative, and provides more information about the true state of the cell in various conditions. Proteomic and bioinformatic approaches helped considerably in identification and characterization of target proteins that could be used for the development of new therapeutic options. Nevertheless, OMICs data integration with simultaneous use of the system approach to studying various clinically significant mycobacterial strains makes it possible to increase knowledge about the disease mechanisms and infection control methods. The review outlines various OMICs technologies and their role in the development of the M. tuberculosis diagnostic panels.

Keywords: tuberculosis, diagnosis, system analysis