Assessment of lipid spectrum and C-reactive protein in people working in the Arctic zone of Russia

About authors

1 Voino-Yasenetsky Krasnoyarsk Medical University, Krasnoyarsk, Russia

2 Privolzhsky Research Medical University, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia

Correspondence should be addressed: Rofail S. Rakhmanov
ploschad Minina i Pozharskogo, 10/1, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia; ur.liam@35far

About paper

Author contribution: Rakhmanov RS — study design and concept, article authoring; Bogomolova ES — editing, approval of the final version of the article; Narutdinov DA — primary material collection; Razgulin SA — literature analysis; Potekhina NN — participation in statistical processing of the material.

Compliance with the ethical standards: the study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Privolzhsky Research Medical University of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation (Minutes #4 of March 14, 2022); all study participants signed a voluntary informed consent form.

Received: 2023-09-09 Accepted: 2023-11-01 Published online: 2023-11-24

Adaptation to the extreme living conditions of the North causes dyslipidemia, a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), in people working there. This study aimed to assess the level of lipids and C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation in CVD cases, in the blood of men staying in the Arctic and Subarctic zones of Russia. Accordingly, the sample was divided into two group, Arctic and Subarctic, the former included 51 participants, aged 35.7 ± 0.6 years, the latter — 54 individuals, aged 34.2 ± 0.9 years (p = 0.167); the duration of their work/stay in the Arctic and Subarctic zones was 7.1 ± 0.2 and 6.4 ± 0.6 years (p = 0.447), respectively. We sampled blood of the participants and measured triglycerides, total cholesterol, low (LDL) and high (HDL) density lipoproteins, atherogenic index (AI), CRP content. Arctic group had higher levels of triglycerides (1.71 ± 0.03 and 1.38 ± 0.14 mmol/l, p = 0.021), total cholesterol (6.15 ± 0.08 and 5.47 ± 0.14 mmol/l, p =0.001), HDL (1.5 ± 0.06 and 1.1 ± 0.04 mmol/l, p = 0.001); the values of LDL did not differ significantly between the groups (4.07 ± 0.08 and 4.1 ± 0.15 mmol/l, p = 0.88), and AI and CRP values (3.41 ± 0.18 and 4.18 ± 0.2, p = 0.007; 3.41 ± 0.18 and 4.91 ± 0.22 mg/l, p = 0.006, respectively) were greater in the Subarctic group. By triglycerides, dyslipidemia was diagnosed in 49.0% and 18.4% of Arctic and Subarctic participants, respectively, by total cholesterol — in 98.0% and 57.8%, by LDL — in 94.1% and 88.0%. As for HDL, their level was lower than normal in 2.0% of the Arctic group subjects and 36.7% of the Subarctic group subjects, which means a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases in the Subarctic region. The level of CRP indicated that 90% of the Arctic group participants were at risk of CVD (moderate risk for 23.5%, high risk for 66.7%), and in the Subarctic group this number was 100% (moderate risk for 7.7%, high risk for 88.5%). The likely reasons behind this are the specifics of nutrition and living conditions. Program of prevention of CVD in the Arctic zone should include lipid profile and CRP tests as part of every periodic medical examination, regardless of age. It is necessary to implement dyslipidemia alimentary correction measures.

Keywords: C-reactive protein, lipids, Arctic zone, cardiovascular risk