Assessing hepatoprotective effects of antioxidants on amiodarone-induced cytotoxicity in human hepatoma HepaRG cell line
Effective therapy of amiodarone-induced hepatotoxicity requires studying the mechanisms of the toxic effects of amiodarone on hepatocytes and assessing the potential impact of hepotoprotective agents. The study was aimed to assess hepatoprotective effects of antioxidants on the amiodarone-induced hepatotoxicity with the use of immortalized human hepatoma cells of the HepaRG cell line. Cell viability was evaluated upon exposure to amiodarone and in the mixture with vitamin Е, N-acetylcysteine and S-adenosylmethionine by impedance measurement; the levels of some hepatotoxicity biomarkers were defined using the Luminex xMAP technology. As a result of the research, the dose-dependent toxic effects of amiodarone were established. The IC50 value of amiodarone in the HepaRG cell line was 3.5 μМ. It is shown that cytotoxic effects decrease and the IC50 value increases in the presence of vitamin Е, N-acetylcysteine and S-adenosylmethionine. Amiodarone reduces the activity of cell cycle regulators: AKT, JNK kinases, and p53 protein. Exposure to amiodarone results in reduced intracellular ATP levels and the release of intracellular enzymes (malate dehydrogenase 1, glutathione S-transferase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, 5'-nucleotidase) into conditioned medium, indicating the necrotic cell death. Thus, vitamin Е, S-adenosylmethionine and N-acetylcysteine reduce amiodarone cytotoxicity in the model of amiodarone-induced damage to hepatocytes and can be considered as hepatoprotective agents in case of the need to protect liver against the hepatotoxic effects of amiodarone.
Keywords: HepaRG, amiodarone, drug hepatotoxicity, vitamin E, N-acetylcysteine, S-adenosylmethionine