Transcription factors in human skeletal muscle associated with single and regular strength exercises
Skeletal muscle plasticity is the ability to change morphofunctional properties in response to changes in contractile activity. Strength training increases the size of muscle fibers and maximum strength with the activation of protein synthesis. Regulation of these changes at the gene level has not been investigated properly. This study aimed to identify transcription factors associated with changes in the transcriptome of the human skeletal muscle in the context of single and regular strength exercises. We assessed changes in the transcriptomic profile of m. vastus lateralis of 10 young men (mean age 23 (20.8 - 25.9) years) before and after 12-week leg extensor muscles strength training course, as well as before, 8 and 24 hours after a single exercise. Transcriptomic profiling involved RNA sequencing, search for binding motifs and the associated transcription factors. Bioinformatic methods of statistics, FastQC, GraphPad Prizm 8, DAVID, R enabled analysis of the data acquired. The strength training course resulted in the enrichment of the functional groups of genes "secreted proteins", "extracellular matrix" and "basal membrane" (p < 0.05). Transcriptomic responses and the associated transcription factors differed 8 and 24 hours after a single session as well as after regular training sessions. Transcription factors involved in adjustment to regular and one-time loads participate in myogenesis, angiogenesis, regulation of fiber phenotype, proteostasis and other processes. Thus, regulation of gene expression during adjustment to the resistance training loads is a complex process that involves many transcription factors with different functions. Investigation of the role played by these factors in the context of adjustment to exercising is a potentially rewarding task.