Results of ultrasound screening for hip dysplasia in infants

Mitryashov KV1, Mitryashov IV2
About authors

1 Synergy University, Moscow, Russia

2 Primorsky Regional Oncology Center, Vladivostok, Russia

Correspondence should be addressed: Konstantin V. Mitryashov
Leningradsky prospect, 80, Moscow, 125190, Russia; ur.xednay@894kram

About paper

Acknowledgements: the authors would like to thank V.V. Usov, Dr Sci. (Med), Professor at the Medical School of the Far Eastern Federal University, for academic supervision and mentorship in research work.

Author contribution: Mitryashov KV — developing the study concept and design, data acquisition, analysis of the results, manuscript writing, editing; Mitryashov IV — data acquisition, statistical data processing, analysis of the results, manuscript writing.

Compliance with the ethical standards: the study was conducted in accordance with the Order of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation dated 28.04.2007 No. 307 “On the Standard of Dispensary (Preventive) Observation of a Child during His/Her First Year of Life”. Parents submitted the informed consent to ultrasound. No approval by the Ethics Committee was required.

Received: 2024-02-15 Accepted: 2024-03-19 Published online: 2024-03-31

Hip dysplasia (HD) represents the congenital underdevelopment of the hip joint (HJ) being the most common orthopedic problem of newborns having the prevalence of 5–20%. Late HD detection is the main cause of coxarthrosis in young adulthood. The study was aimed to assess the results of ultrasound screening for HD in infants. The study involved 860 full-term infants aged 1–3 months (446 boys (51.9%) and 414 girls (48.1%)). All newborns underwent ultrasound imaging of the hip joint at the age of 1 month and the follow-up examination at the age of 3 months (Graf method). The χ2 test and p < 0.05 were used to compare the data. In their first year of life, 685 newborns (79.7%) had joints of normal or transitory shape, 161 (18.7%) showed physiological immaturity and 14 (1.6%) showed the HJ abnormality; the HJ immaturity and abnormality were more prevalent in girls (113 cases (26.3%)) than in boys (62 cases (13.9%)). The relationship between the breech presentation and the likelihood of developing HD was revealed (p < 0.001). Spontaneous improvement by the age of 3 months took place in the majority of infants having the ultrasound signs of HD, the rate of normal HJ increased from 79.8 to 94.5%. Ultrasound screening is an effective method allowing one to detect HD starting from the first days of the child’s life. The risk factors of HD are still female sex and breech presentation, regardless of the number of births. Spontaneous improvement following prescription of relaxing massage occurs in the majority of children.

Keywords: hip dysplasia, ultrasound screening of newborns, hip sonography, congenital hip dislocation