The spread of COVID-19 in Russia has led to restrictive measures. The stress associated therewith had a noticeable psychoemotional effect on the population, which could not but affect the numbers and patterns of acute chemical poisonings (ACP). This study aimed to investigate the patterns of ACP in Moscow in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. We analyzed data describing cases admitted with ACP to N.V. Sklifosovsky Research Institute for Emergency Medicine in 2019–2021, factoring in the dynamics COVID-19 prevalence as diagnosed with RT-PCR tests. The results of the analysis were processed using nonparametric methods and GraphPad Prism 9 software. Within the considered period, 2020 was the peak year. The number of acute poisonings (AP) with ethanol and its surrogates in 2020 was 109.7% greater than in 2019 (both sexes; the figure for women alone was 286.2%). Male patients suffered AP with drugs and corrosive substances more often than female (p < 0.0001). The number of drug abuse cases in 2019–2021 varied slightly, increasing by 2.4 and 6.7% annually. Synthetic narcotic substances were most common: methadone, cathinones, psychostimulants, and mixtures of substances. We discovered parallel trends in dynamics of ethanol intoxication and COVID-19 cases, and no such between drug poisonings and the said morbidity. Thus, the identified specifics of ACP patterns in the capital of Russia associated with the COVID-19 pandemic are a spike in alcohol abuse (especially among women), and lack of noticeable effect of the disease on use of drugs.
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The problem of iron deficiency among donors is relevant and directly affects the provision of hemocomponents to the blood service. Donors, being a risk group for the development of iron deficiency, are examined before donation, including a study of hemoglobin levels. However, there is no information about the state of iron stores, when depleted, iron deficiency anemia develops. In turn, anemia is a contraindication to donation and, therefore, leads to medical exemptions from donation. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the main indicators of iron metabolism in donors of blood and (or) blood components at risk of developing latent iron deficiency. The examination of 174 donors included a hemogram, assessment of the level of hemoglobin, serum ferritin (SF), transferrin, and soluble transferrin receptors. When assessing the intensity of changes in reserve and transport iron indicators, 228 deviations from the reference range were analyzed. The criterion for the risk of developing iron deficiency was hemoglobin values at the lower limit of normal (130–135 g/l in men and 120–125 g/l in women) and the threshold level of ferritin (30 μg/l in male donors and 20 μg/l in women). The risk group included 58.3% of young donors — women who donate blood 1–2 times during the year (p < 0.01) and 66.6% (p < 0.01) of donors — men who donate blood regularly throughout 4 and > years. The average ferritin level in male donors was 27.37 μg/l (p < 0.02) and lower than the reference values. It is concluded that it is advisable to assess the indicators of iron metabolism in donors in the case of borderline hemoglobin levels, in women of reproductive age after 2 blood donations and in men with the number of donations ≥ 10. To replenish the iron depot in the body, when iron deficiency is detected in donors, it is necessary to consider the issue of prevention.
VIEWS 149
Winter swimming implies extreme cold stress, which can cause respiratory disorders, arrhythmias, and elevated blood pressure even in generally healthy people. Pre-training examinations for athletes practicing winter swimming should include additional criteria evaluating reaction of the cardiovascular system (CVS) to cold water. This study aimed to determine the risk of pathological abnormalities in the examined individuals exhibiting different CVS reactions to immersion in cold water. We assessed reactivity of CVS with the help of a cold-hypoxic test (CHT), following a previously developed algorithm. The subjects of the analysis were CVS reactions to CHT and physical data collected after swimming in cold water. The study involved 255 female and 205 male participants, all of them almost healthy, aged 18–25 years. They participated in testing in a laboratory setting. Poly-Spektr-8/E cardiograph was used to record ECGs, and GraphPad Prism 8 package for Windows 10 for statistical analysis. Findings: in highly reactive and reactive participants, CHT causes lengthening of the PQ interval, with its value in the initial state (IS) equal to 158 ± 7.2, and with CHT — 178 ± 9.1 (p < 0.01); in subjects of he paradoxical type, CHT, against the background of higher pulse, triggered increase of QTc, which in the IS was 405 ± 7.1, with CHT — 420 ± 7.5 (p < 0.05). As for blood pressure, on average, CHT made it grow, SBD by 17.4 ± 4.3 mmHg, DBP by 12.9 ± 3.1 mmHg (p < 0.05).  Swimmers adapted to cold, when swimming in cold water, had QTc above normal in 50% of cases: e.g., if IS of QTc was 434 ± 24 s, after swimming it increased to 492 ± 25 s. After a 200 m swim at t = 1.5–2 °C, the average blood pressure in the group, compared to IS, increased, with SBD growing by 16.9 ± 3.1 mmHg, and DBP — by 12.3 ± 2.3 mmHg (p < 0.05). Having analyzed the data, we conclude that CHT can be the basis of additional criteria extending examinations for athletes seeking admittance to cold water swimming.
VIEWS 172
DNA methylation plays an important role in carcinogenesis; there are many studies that investigate the degree of methylation of the entire genome, gene promoters, and non-coding elements in cancer cells, but much less information about changes of the methylation patterns in blood cells and links with the development of malignant neoplasms (MN). This study aimed to investigate the degree of methylation of promoter regions of cell cycle control and apoptosis genes (BAX, MDM2, TP53, NFkB1) in peripheral blood cells of persons chronically exposed to radiation with MN developing latently. The study included 200 persons chronically exposed to radiation from the Techa River, contaminated with nuclear wastes dumped into it. The level of methylation was assessed by real-time PCR. The participants were divided into exposed and control groups; comparing them, we found that in the former, the distribution of exposed individuals with latent MN by the degree of methylation of promoter regions of BAX, MDM2 and NFkB1 genes was significantly different from that in the latter (p < 0.001; p < 0.001; p = 0.004, respectively). It was established that, compared to the control group, the share of the test group participants with subsequent MN who had up to 10% of the BAX gene promoter regions methylated was significantly higher, and amounted to 98%, while in the control group this figure did not exceed 73% (p < 0.00001).
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