ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Metabolic activity of immunocompetent cells in assessment of individual cold sensitivity

Patrakeeva VP, Schtaborov VA
About authors

N. Laverov Federal Center for Integrated Arctic Research of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Arkhangelsk, Russia

Correspondence should be addressed: Veronika P. Patrakeeva
Naberezhnaya Severnoi Dviny, 23, Arkhangelsk, 163000, Russia; ur.xednay@akinorev.aweekartap

About paper

Funding: the study was carried out as part of the fundamental research program on the topic of the Laboratory of Ecological Immunology, Institute of Environmental Adaptation Physiology, N. Laverov Federal Center for Integrated Arctic Research of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, project № 122011300377-5.

Author contributions: Patrakeeva VP — study planning, literature analysis, data acquisition, processing and interpretation, manuscript writing; Schtaborov VA — literature analysis, data acquisition and processing, manuscript writing.

Compliance with ethical standards: the study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the N. Laverov Federal Center for Integrated Arctic Research of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (protocols № 4 and 6 of 7 December 2016 and 14 February 2022, respectively) and carried out in accordance with the principles of the 1975 Declaration of Helsinki (2013).

Received: 2022-10-14 Accepted: 2022-11-02 Published online: 2022-11-17
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The rapid switch on of the transient short-term responses involved in adjustment of homeostasis plays a key role in human adaptation to low temperatures that is essential for adjustment to low-temperature environment. The network of signaling pathways together with metabolic regulators provide sufficient plasticity of the cells of immune system, the normal function of which is extremely important for successful human adaptation. Sufficient energy supply to immunocompetent cells makes it possible to form an adequate immune response to any negative factor and to ensure adaptive functional rearrangements. The study was aimed to assess the variants of the immunocompetent cell metabolic pathways involved in acquiring individual cold sensitivity. A total of 180 people aged 25–55 (130 females, 50 males) were assessed before and after the short-term whole body cooling. Enzyme immunoassay was used to define the levels of IL10, IL6, TNFα, irisin, transferrin, sTfR, HIF-1α, Sirt3 in peripheral blood and cell lysate. The levels of glycogen (cytochemical methods) and ATP (luciferin-luciferase assay) in lymphocytes were defined. The decrease in peripheral blood lymphocyte levels after cooling was indicative of the formation of immediate adaptive response and activation of glycolysis amid less intense inflammatory response. The increase in the levels of circulating lymphocytes after the cold esposure was associated with activation of inflammatory responses. The lower ratio of HIF-1α/SIRT3 metabolic regulators was found in the surveyed volunteers who showed no changes in the levels of lymphocytes. This indicated predominance of mitochondrial activity in adaptation to low temperatures.

Keywords: cold, metabolic activity, glycogen, irisin, ATP, oxygen saturation

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